When PVC (polyvinyl chloride) gets chlorinated through free radical chlorination reaction it forms chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC). Chlorine is added to PVC to make CPVC using water slurry or fluidized bed chlorination process. The process involves the use of ultraviolet light to carry out the chlorination reaction.
CPVC is somewhat similar to PVC in terms of properties as they are structurally related, but the former has additional advantages due to excess chlorine.
The CPVC resin manufacturing industry procures raw materials such as PVC, chlorine and others from suppliers and produces the resin. Few manufacturers integrate their raw materials and produce them in captive to reduce the production costs. After the resin is manufactured it is either compounded or directly packaged and supplied to the end-user market for use in a wide range of extrusion, injection molding and other purposes.
A compound is defined as a substance formed when two or more elements are chemically bonded together.
New compound formulations are developed to meet an application requirement. Companies create custom compounds by blending a variety of additives, modifiers and stabilizers with CPVC resin to achieve specific properties. For instance, rigid and flexible CPVC compounds are made by using plasticizer as an additive.
Applications of CPVC
CPVC’s true potential lies in its versatility, relative price, easy installation and resistance to corrosion. With these in mind, general uses for each vary based on the requirements of the application. CPVC has bettered strengths of other polymers like PVC. Hence, it can be used in most of the same applications. In case of application needs like chemical resistance along with demanding pressure and temperature conditions, CPVC is the better option than other polymers.
CPVC is PVC (polyvinyl chloride) that has been chlorinated via a free radical chlorination reaction. This reaction is typically initiated by application of thermal or UV energy utilizing various approaches. In the process, gaseous chlorine is decomposed into free radical chlorine which is then made to react with PVC in a post-production step. It essentially replaces a portion of the hydrogen in the PVC with chlorine.
Depending on the method, a varying amount of chlorine is introduced into the polymer allowing for a measured way to fine tune the final properties. The chlorine content varies from manufacturer to manufacturer. Sometimes, the base can be as low as 56.7% to as high as 74% by mass. Normally most commercial CPVC resins have chlorine content from 63% to 69%. As the chlorine content in CPVC increases, its glass transition temperature (Tg) increases significantly. Under normal operating conditions, CPVC becomes unstable at 70% mass of chlorine.
There are two major commercial processes used to manufacture chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (PVC). In one process, PVC is chlorinated in a dry particulate state by means of a fluidized bed under ultraviolet irradiation. The other process involves a wet chlorination, under irradiation, of an aqueous suspension of solid PVC plus a small amount of chloroform to promote swelling of the PVC.
Market Drivers and Restraints
Emergence of Multinational CPVC Players – The worldwide expansion of the CPVC industry has been driven largely by the rise of multinational companies. Global investment in CPVC has been driven by lower labor costs, world economic growth, the reduction of tariffs and regulatory barriers. Moreover, technology transfer from developed countries to countries in economic transition as a result of joint ventures, licensing have helped such emerging economies to play a larger role in the market. Therefore, the majority of global investment in CPVC market is occurring in the developing world. For instance, in 2013 Sekisui and Lubrizol formed a JV to build a CPVC resin plant in Thailand to meet the growing demand in the region.
Safety – Safety regulations and consequent costs were a major concern for the CPVC resin industry. Many of its raw materials and by-products are potentially hazardous at some stage during their manufacture and transport. These chemicals may be liquids or gases; corrosive and/or toxic especially chemicals such as dioxin, hydrochloric acid, and vinyl chloride poses a severe health risks to humans during the CPVC life cycle. Manufacturing processes frequently involve high temperatures, high pressures, and reactions which can be dangerous unless carefully controlled.
They also have restraints on the conditions under which particular chemicals can be transported. These regulations have led to higher costs and production limitations in the industry.
Global CPVC Market Demand
The chart and table below show the year-on-year growth of the global CPVC market demand during 2014 – 2023 in Thousand Metric Ton.
CPVC Market By Region
Asia was the largest consumer of CPVC and this pattern is anticipated to be identical over the following few years. Consumption in Asia is showing upward trend because of increase in economic activity in China and India. China, India and South Korea were the largest consumers of CPVC in this region, among these India is likely to grow at a higher pace. Growing demand from construction, electricals/electronics and other industries will drive CPVC market in Asia. Consumption of CPVC in rest of the world was minimal however it is likely to grow at a reasonable rate next to Asia. North America is likely to grow at a significant rate due to demand from electronics and automobile industry. Demand from Europe was low relatively and is likely to stay same in the next few years due to strict environmental regulations.
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